Saturday, May 23, 2020

University of Maiduguri with Disciplinary - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2510 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Education Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Garba v.University of Maiduguri with Disciplinary issues in Tertiary Institutions Introduction A watershed moment in the landscape of the nations judicial decisions took place in the last century in the case of Garba v.University of Maiduguri[1] Where the Supreme Court laid down a marker in respect of disciplinary issues in our tertiary institutions, and the limits and otherwise of the powers of institutions to punish erring students. The decision has been the subject of criticism, and it has been subjected to several scrutinies through several cases which has besieged the courts over the years. This article will attempt to reconcile disciplinary issues in the tertiary institution and the ropes that bind the various bodies that can prescribe the required punishment. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "University of Maiduguri with Disciplinary" essay for you Create order Salient points were raised by the Supreme Court in this case on rules of natural justice and the fact that an offence which amounts to a crime punishable by a court was not within the remit of a university disciplinary board to pass punishment, until a court has first done so. The question is would the decision of the Supreme Court be different had the rules of natural justice being observed, and if the proper channel of judicial punishment had be carried out in the first instance. Indeed some commentators[2] had stated that the Supreme Court decision raises concern as to the proper limit of all University disciplinary functions, the rights of an aggrieved student and the proper nature of judicial intervention in the domestic sphere. Is there a limit to the scope of disciplinary issues a tertiary institution can handle vis-ÃÆ'  -vis the enormity of the offence? This article will attempt to proffer answers to these questions. The Facts and principles laid down in Gar ba v.University of Maiduguri The extant law or enabling statute of most Universities have similar provisions that for the discipline of student. Section 18 of the University of Maiduguri Act[3] 1979 is here reproduced. It provides: (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, where it appears to the Vice-Chancellor that any student of the University has been guilty of misconduct, the Vice-Chancellor may, without prejudice to any other disciplinary powers conferred on him by statute or regulations, direct- (a) that the student shall not, during such period as may be specified in the direction, participate in such activities of the University, or make use of such facilities of the University, as may be so specified; or (b) that the activities of the student shall, during such period as may be specified in the direction, be restricted in such manner as may be so specified; or (c) that the student be rusticated for such period as may be specified in the directi on; or (d) that the student be expelled from the University. (2) Where a direction is given under subsection (1) (c) or (d) of this section in respect of any student, the student may, within the prescribed period and in the prescribed manner, appeal from the direction to the Council; and where such an appeal is brought, the Council shall, after causing such inquiry to be made in the matter as the Council considers just, either confirm or set aside the direction or modify it in such manner as the Council thinks fit. (3) The fact that an appeal from a direction is brought in pursuance of the last fore- going subsection shall not affect the question of the direction while the appeal is pending. (4) The Vice-Chancellor may delegate his powers under this section to a disciplinary board consisting of such members of the University otherwise than on the ground of misconduct. The facts of the case were that following a violent student demonstration, the appellants, amon g other student were expelled by the respondent University for their alleged involvement. The students left on their trail criminal acts such as assault, theft, robbery, house trespass and arson which are serious offences under the penal code. The Deputy Vice Chancellor who was the chairman of the disciplinary investigative board instituted by the Vice Chancellor set up to investigate the matter was a victim of the student rampage. As a result of this irregularity and the issues of lack of jurisdiction on the part of the university and the panel, the appellants sought to quash their expulsion. They were successful in the High Court, but this was reversed on appeal by the respondent university to the Court of Appeal which held that there had been no denial of fair hearing and that the High Court had no jurisdiction à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“to state who should not be expelled from or admitted to the Universityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and the High Court ought to have referred the matter back to the U niversity for necessary action, following the rules of natural justice. On further appeal to the Supreme Court, the main issue was whether the University had jurisdiction to inquire into and impose disciplinary measure for misconduct, which amounted to a crime under the penal code Act. This was answered in the negative. According to Obaseki JSC as he then was, who read the lead judgement, Students in all Universities and institutions of Higher learning are not above the law of the land and where obvious cases of breaches of our criminal and penal laws occur, the authorities of the University are not empowered to treat the matter as an internal affair.[4] The learned jurist relied on section 33(1) and (4) of the 1979 constitution now sections 36(1) and (4) of the 1999 constitution. Which states thus: In the determination of his civil rights and obligations including and question or determination by or against any government or authority or a person shall be entitled to a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court or other tribunal established by law and constituted in such a manner as to secure its independence and impartiality. Whenever a person is charged with a criminal offence he shall, unless the charge is withdrawn, be entitled to a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court or tribunal. In the opinion of it Lordship, since these provisions above were not followed. He concluded that the fundamental right of the appellants has been violated by their being punished for criminal offence without a preceding trial and a conviction by a court.[5] Disciplinary Issues and present state of affairs The opinion of the Supreme Court is that offences against the laws of the land fall outside the jurisdiction of the visitor and Vice Chancellor. Juxtaposing this position with several disciplinary issues within the tertiary institution, is that majority of the disciplinary issues which could includes cultism[6], examination malpractice[7], personation[8], and so on are crimes against the law of the land and punishable by a court. It therefore means that tertiary institutions would embark on unending court cases before they could punish an erring student should the internal m echanism of punishment outlined in their enabling statute not adhered to. On this Ukhuegbe[9] states that the: The exclusion of criminal matters from the disciplinary jurisdiction is very injurious to the administrative process. Ultimately, it will render the system completely ineffective since many varieties of misconduct fall within the spectrum of the criminal law The decision of the Supreme Court have given room for student to proceed to the courts at the sight of any issues with their parent school which in some instances has resulted in needless judicial exercise. In University of Ilorin v. Oluwadare[10] the respondent was involved in examination malpractice, and he was subsequently expelled in pursuance to the enabling laws that established the University to set up a Student Disciplinary Committee (SDC) to try such offences. The respondent had the option of appealing to the University Governing Council. However he did not await the outcome of the internal appeal, but instead proceeded to the Federal High Court for the enforcement of his fundamental rights. The respondent contended that the SDC lacked the power to deal with examination misconduct which is criminal in nature and that the respondent was not afforded adequate opportunity to defend himself. On the other hand, the Appellants contended at the trial that an act of examination misconduct is a misconduct that can be dealt with by the Appellants under the University of Ilorin Act, Cap. 455 Laws of the Federation 1990 and that the Respondent was given a fair hearing while the steps taken by the Respondent in rushing to Court, after he had appealed to the Governing Council, was indeed premature and constituted an abuse of judicial process and also runs counter to the relevant provisions of Unilorin Act, Cap. 455, which allows appeal from the decision of the SDC. The court of first instance and the Court of Appeal upheld the argument of the respondent student. On further appeal t o the Supreme Court, Umaru Kalgo JSC who delivered the lead judgement by dismissing the appeal on the grounds that the case was wrongly commenced at the trial court which therefore robbed it of jurisdiction to entertain the case. He stated thus: In this appeal the claims are partly for wrongful dismissal or termination of appointment and partly for breach of fundamental right. . .the principal claim being wrongful termination of appointment, which ought to have been commenced by a writ of summons, which was not then all the claims, principal and subsidiary which flow directly from it, are incompetent and therefore ought to be struck out. The Respondent was thereby jumping the gun, as his case being a challenge to his expulsion as a student from the 1st Appellantà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s institution, is not one of those claims/reliefs envisaged by the Fundamental Rights Enforcement Procedure Rules. The right to studentship not being among the rights guaranteed by the 1999 Constitution, the only appropriate method by which the Respondent could have challenged his expulsion was for him to have commenced the action with a Writ of Summons. When an application is brought under the Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 1979, a condition precedent to the exercise of the Courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s jurisdiction is that the enforcement of fundamental rights or the security of the enforcement thereof should be the main claim and not an accessory claim. This case was a needless judicial exercise which ought not to have gotten to the courts in the first instance if the internal resolution mechanism of the school has been observed by the erring student. The Shortcomings of the Doctrine Apart from the known fact that frivolous cases have besieged the court as a result of the doctrine, like the case above, it has been submitted that the doctrine is difficult to reconcile with the administrative process of the University and it has in fact created more problems that it sets to solve.[11] The first problem it creates is that the University authority can only discipline student after a courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pronouncement where the issue touches and concerns crime. This will in turn create an unnecessary legalism into the administrative process of the University.[12] According to Professor Hart To turn every hearing of every disciplinary charge into a formal public trial would be, at best, time wasting and at worst, might d amage young menà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s careers, and might sharpened and harden what has been a generally mild and even friendly attitude to those faced with disciplinary charges[13] Another inherent issues with the doctrine is that there was no distinction of cases in respect of the nature and severity of a crime neither did it answer the question as to what happens if the charge was struck out for nolle prosequi especially where there is an unwillingness on the part of the State to prosecute.[14] Another issue that was not clarified was that what happens to a student when a case is in court. Can such a student retain its studentship? To avoid a situation where the status of such student is elevated to realms that will result to internal disturbance, he cannot remain a student of that institution pending the determination of such case. It is advisable that he is suspended not as a punishment for his offence, but as a holding operation.[15] Possible Exceptions to the Doctrine Section 6 of the Studentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Union Activities (Control and Regulation) Act[16] provides that The provisions of any enactment, law or instrument relating to any matter to which this Act applies or relating to the admission or disciplinary control of a student in any educational institution affected by this Act, shall have effect subject to this Act. According to Okonkwo[17] any determination of the courts to make an incursion in light of the Garbaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s case will be dampened by section 6 above. The Supreme Court also went further rather persuasively in the dictum of Oputa JSC as he then was in Garbaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s case that in extreme cases, there will an exception to this rule, where a student were to slap the Vice Chancellor, the effect of Section 36 of the 1999 constitution may give way. This position was supported in the cases of R. v. Senate of University of Ashton ex. Roffey[18] and Gylnn v. Keele University[19] where because of the ir peculiar circumstances, fair hearing or the principles of natural justice were dispensed with. Conclusions The Garbaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s case creates a divide in disciplinary issues in the tertiary institutions. Where would the line be drawn in respect of all disciplinary cases especially when it is clear that most if not all the misconduct are offences within the Criminal Code and Penal Code Act? And the courts in such instances must first pass judgement. The proper way to move away from the logjam created by this situation is for the Supreme Court to revisit the case according to Coker JSC[20] Also, according to Uwais JSC[21]Universities should be permitted to deal domestically with minor criminal matters. Ultimately, the last remit lies with the National Assembly through the National Universities Commission to see to it that a law is enacted that will confer full powers on the Vice Chancellor or Rector as the case may be to deal with all categories of disciplinary issu es which might occur within an institution. [1] (1986) 1 NWLR (pt. 18) 500 [2] A. Akinrele, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The Domestic Forum of a University- An Inviolable Sanctuary?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1986) 1 LPR 28 [3] [4] At p. 576 [5] Supra Note 5 [6] Section 63 of the Criminal Code Act provides for seven years in imprisonment for any person who manages or assist in the management of an unlawful society. [7] Section 1 of the Examination Malpractices Act provides for punishment ranging from fines and three years imprisonment for offenders [8] Section 3 of the same Act punishes impersonation by fines and prison terms between three to four years. [9] S. O. Ukhuegbe, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Public Law and the Disciplinary Powers of Universities in Nigeriaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1993)4 UBSLJ 16 [10] (2006) accessed 14th January, 2014 [11] F. I. Oshodin, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Garba v. University of Maiduguri revisitedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1998) LAWSA J. UNIB EN Vol. 7, 14 [12] Supra Note 11 [13] J.W. Bridge à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Keeping Peace in Universitiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1970) 86 LQR at p. 500 quoted in Supra Note 11 pg. 14 [14] C O. Okonkwo à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Discipline, Nigerian Universities and the Lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Nigeria Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, (1996) 21 [15] Dictum of Lord Denning, MR in Lewis v. Haffer (1978) 1 WLR 1073 [16] LFN, 1990 [17] Supra Note 14, pg 35 [18] (1969) 2 AER 964 [19] (1971) 2 AER 89 [20] Supra Note 1 at p.611 [21] Supra Note 1 at p.608-609

Monday, May 11, 2020

Introduction And Literature Review The Decline Of...

1. Introduction Literature review The early 2000s recession was a drastic decline in economic conditions, which mainly occurred in the developed countries. From 2001, the Federal Reserve initiated a move to quell the stock market, caused successive inflation in interest rate, thus â€Å"plunging the country into† the worldwide economic recession (Ruddy, 2006). The annual GDP growth rate dropped below 1% along with the significant downturn in U.S. housing and the stock market. From 2002, the economy started to recover from the recession: the GDP growth rate slightly increased every month, the monthly house price index increased and the SP index increased with an approximate one year lag. The year 2002 and 2003 are the â€Å"golden age† of recovery. The annual GDP growth rate increased to 2%-3% and the housing price index increases significantly with a slight increase in stock prices in 2003. Interestingly, although the GDP growth rate and the house price index started to increase in 2002, the stock marke t remained in recession until the end of the year. Consumer Confidence is an economic indicator, which government should take specific actions to improve to accelerate the process of economic recovery. People’s confidence in the economy or their personal financial situation will significantly influence their purchasing decisions. A booming economy is likely to generate a belief that current financial investments will gain valuable profits in the future; a strong trend inShow MoreRelatedBrics, India, China And South Africa1451 Words   |  6 PagesI. Introduction The acronym of â€Å"BRICS† refers to a group of five emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa which represent nearly 30% of the earth’s surface and 40% of world’s population . 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Tadesse and Shukralla (2013) foundRead MoreHow Companies Are Managing The Foreign Exchange Risk Through The Use Currency Options1383 Words   |  6 Pagesderivatives basically for the purpose of hedging. 2. Introduction The main body of this study is to elucidate how currency options are used by companies or organisations to support their foreign currency exchange risk. The value of a currency is said to decline, or depreciate, when there is an increase in the domestic price of the foreign currency. The value can also increase, or appreciate, which refers to a decline in the domestic price of the foreign currency (Garcà ­a Muà ±oz et.alRead MoreElder Self Neglect And Social Justice1668 Words   |  7 Pages Elder Self Neglect and Social Justice Nicole Monson Submitted to Instructor Terry Lee, MSN, RN, BC, in partial fulfillment of NR410 Introduction to the Profession of Nursing Regis University January 29, 2017 Introduction Self-neglect in the elderly is an important public health issue. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Practical Demonkeeping Chapter 10-11 Free Essays

10 AUGUSTUS BRINE Augustus Brine sat in one of his high-backed leather chairs massaging his temples, trying to formulate a plan of action. Rather than answers, the question, Why me? repeated in his mind like a perplexing mantra. Despite his size, strength, and a lifetime of learning, Augustus Brine felt small, weak, and stupid. We will write a custom essay sample on Practical Demonkeeping Chapter 10-11 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Why me? A few minutes before, Gian Hen Gian had rushed into the house babbling in Arabic like a madman. When Brine finally calmed him down, the genie had told him he had found the demon. â€Å"You must find the dark one. He must have the Seal of Solomon. You must find him!† Now the genie was sitting in the chair across from Brine, munching potato chips and watching a videotape of a Marx Brothers movie. The genie insisted that Brine take some sort of action, but he had no suggestions on how to proceed. Brine examined the options and found them wanting. He could call the police, tell them that a genie had told him that an invisible man-eating demon had invaded Pine Cove, and spend the rest of his life under sedation: not good. Or, he could find the dark one, insist that he send the demon back to hell, and be eaten by the demon: not good. Or he could find the dark one, sneak around hoping that he wasn’t noticed by an invisible demon that could be anywhere, steal the seal, and send the demon back to hell himself, but probably get eaten in the process: also, not good. Of course he could deny that he believed the story, deny that he had seen Gian Hen Gian drink enough saltwater to kill a battalion, deny the existence of the supernatural altogether, open an impudent little bottle of merlot, and sit by his fireplace drinking wine while a demon from hell ate his neighbors. But he did believe it, and that option, too, was not good. For now he decided to rub his temples and think, Why me? The genie would be no help at all. Without a master he was as powerless as Brine himself. Without the seal and invocation, he could have no master. Brine had run through the more obvious courses of action with Gian Hen Gian to have each doomed in succession. No, he could not kill the demon: he was immortal. No, he could not kill the dark one: he was under the protection of the demon, and killing him, if it were possible, might release the demon to his own will. To attempt an exorcism would be silly, the genie reasoned; would some mingy prelate be able to override the power of Solomon? Perhaps they could separate the demon from his keeper – somehow force the dark one to send the demon back. Brine started to ask Gian Hen Gian if it was feasible but stopped himself. Tears were coursing down the genie’s face. â€Å"What’s the matter?† Brine asked. Gian Hen Gian kept his eyes trained on the television screen, where Harpo Marx was pulling a collection of objects from his coat, objects obviously too large to be stored there. â€Å"It has been so long since I have seen one of my own kind. This one who does not speak, I do not recognize him, but he is Djinn. What magic!† Brine considered for a moment the possibility that Harpo Marx might have been one of the Djinn, then berated himself for even thinking about it. Too much had happened today that was outside the frame of his experience and it had opened him up to thinking that anything was possible. If he weren’t careful, he would lose his sense of judgment completely. â€Å"You’ve been here a thousand years and you’ve never seen a movie before?† Brine asked. â€Å"What is a movie?† Slowly and gently, Augustus Brine explained to the king of the Djinn about the illusion created by motion pictures. When he finished, he felt like he had just raped the tooth fairy in front of a class of kindergartners. â€Å"Then I am alone still?† the genie said. â€Å"Not completely.† â€Å"Yes,† the genie said, eager to leave the moment behind, â€Å"but what are you going to do about Catch, Augustus Brine?† 11 EFFROM Effrom Elliot awoke that morning eagerly anticipating his nap. He’d been dreaming about women, about a time when he had hair and choices. He hadn’t slept well. Some barking dogs had awakened him during the night, and he wished he could sleep in, but as soon as the sun broke through his bedroom window, he was wide awake, without a hope of getting back to sleep and recapturing his dream until nap time. It had been that way since he had retired, twenty-five years ago. As soon as his life had eased so that he might sleep in, his body would not let him. He crept from bed and dressed in the half-light of the bedroom, putting on corduroys and a wool flannel shirt the wife had laid out for him. He put on his slippers and tiptoed out of the bedroom, palming the door shut so as not to wake the wife. Then he remembered that the wife was gone to Monterey, or was it Santa Barbara? Anyway, she wasn’t home. Still, he continued his morning routine with the usual stealth. In the kitchen he put on the water for his morning cup of decaf. Outside the kitchen window the hummingbirds were already hovering up to the feeder, stopping for drinks of red sugar water on their route through the wife’s fuchias and honeysuckle. He thought of the hummingbirds as the wife’s pets. They moved too fast for his tastes. He had seen a nature show on television that said that their metabolism was so fast that they might not even be able to see humans. The whole world had gone the way of the hummingbirds as far as Effrom was concerned. Everything and everybody was too fast, and sometimes he felt invisible. He couldn’t drive anymore. The last time he had tried, the police had stopped him for obstructing traffic. He had told the cop to stop and smell the flowers. He told the cop that he had been driving since before the cop was a glimmer in his daddy’s eye. It had been the wrong approach. The policeman took his license. The wife did all the driving now. Imagine it – when he had taught her to drive, he had to keep grabbing the wheel to keep her from putting the Model T into the ditch. What would the snot-nosed cop say about that? The water was beginning to boil on the stove. Effrom rummaged through the old tin bread box and found the package of chocolate-covered graham crackers the wife had left for him. In the cupboard the jar of Sanka sat next to the real coffee. Why not? The wife was gone, why not live a little? He took the regular coffee from the shelf and set about finding the filters and filter holder. He hadn’t the slightest idea where they were kept. The wife took care of that sort of thing. He finally found the filters, the holder, and the serving carafe on the shelf below. He poured some coffee into the filter, eyeballed it, and poured in some more. Then he poured the water over the grounds. The coffee came through strong and black as the kaiser’s heart. He poured himself a cup and there was still a little left in the carafe. No sense wasting it. He opened the kitchen window, and after fumbling with the lid for a moment, poured the remaining coffee into the hummingbird feeder. â€Å"Live a little, boys.† He wondered if the coffee might not speed them up to the point where they just burnt up in the atmosphere. He toyed with the idea of watching for a while, then he remembered that his exercise show was about to start. He picked up his graham crackers and coffee and headed for the living room and his big easy chair in front of the RCA. He made sure the sound was turned down, then turned on the old console set. When the picture came on, a young blond woman in iridescent tights was leading three other young women through a series of stretches. Effrom guessed that there was music playing from the way they moved, but he always watched with the sound turned off so as not to wake the wife. Since he had discovered his exercise program, the women in his dreams all wore iridescent tights. The girls were all on their backs now, waving their legs in the air. Effrom munched his graham crackers and watched in fascination. Time was when a man had to spend the better part of a week’s pay to see a show like that. Now you could get it on cable for only†¦. Well, the wife took care of the cable bill, but he guessed that it was pretty cheap. Life was grand. Effrom considered going out to his workshop and getting his cigarettes. A smoke would go good right now. After all, the wife was gone. Why should he sneak around in his own house? No, the wife would know. And when she confronted him, she wouldn’t yell, she would just look at him. She would get that sad look in her blue eyes and she would say, â€Å"Oh, Effrom.† That’s all, â€Å"Oh, Effrom.† And he would feel as if he had betrayed her. Nope, he could wait until his show was over and go smoke in his workshop, where the wife would never dare to set foot. Suddenly the house felt very empty. It was like a great vacant warehouse where the slightest noise rattles in the rafters. A presence was missing. He never saw the wife until she knocked on his workshop door at noon to call him to lunch, but somehow he felt her absence, as if the insulation had been ripped from around him, leaving him raw to the elements. For the first time in a long time Effrom felt afraid. The wife was coming back, but maybe someday she would be gone forever. Someday he would really be alone. He wished for a moment that he would die first, then thinking of the wife alone, knocking on the workshop door from which he would never emerge, made him feel selfish and ashamed. He tried to concentrate on the exercise show but found no solace in spandex tights. He rose and turned off the TV. He went to the kitchen and put his coffee in the sink. Outside the window the hummingbirds went about their business, shimmering in the morning sun. A sense of urgency came over him. It became suddenly very important to get to his workshop and finish his latest carving. Time seemed as fleeting and fragile as the little birds. In his younger days he might have met the feeling with a naive denial of his own mortality. Age had given him a different defense, and his thoughts returned to the image of he and the wife going to bed together and never waking, their lives and memories going out all at once. This too, he knew, was a naive fantasy. When the wife got home he was going to give her hell for going away, he knew that for sure. Before unlocking his workshop he set the alarm on his watch to go off at lunchtime. If he worked through lunch he might miss his nap. There was no sense in wasting the day just because the wife was out of town. When the knock came on his workshop door, Effrom thought at first that the wife had come home early to surprise him with lunch. He ground out his cigarette in an empty toolbox that he kept for that purpose. He blew the last lungful of smoke into the exhaust fan he had installed â€Å"to take out the sawdust.† â€Å"Coming. Just a minute,† he said. He revved up one of his high-speed polishing tools for effect. The knocking continued and Effrom realized that it was not coming from the inside door that the wife usually knocked on, but from the one leading out into the front yard. Probably Jehovah’s Witnesses. He climbed down from his stool, checked the pockets of his corduroys for quarters, and found one. If you bought a Watchtower from them, they would go away, but if they caught you without spare change, they would be on you like soul-saving terriers. Effrom threw the door open and the young man outside jumped back. He was dressed in a black sweatshirt and jeans – rather casual, Effrom thought, for someone carrying the formal invitation to the end of the world. â€Å"Are you Effrom Elliot?† he asked. â€Å"I am.† Effrom said. He held out his quarter. â€Å"Thanks for stopping by, but I’m busy, so you can just give me my Watchtower and I’ll read it later.† â€Å"Mr. Elliot, I’m not a Jehovah’s Witness.† â€Å"Well, I have all the insurance I can afford, but if you leave me your card, I’ll give it to the wife.† â€Å"Is your wife still alive, Mr. Elliot?† â€Å"Of course she’s alive. What did you think? I was going to tape your business card to her tombstone? Son, you’re not cut out to be a salesman. You should get an honest job.† â€Å"I’m not a salesman, Mr. Elliot. I’m an old friend of your wife’s. I need to talk to her. It’s very important.† â€Å"She ain’t home.† â€Å"Your wife’s name is Amanda, right?† â€Å"That’s right. But don’t you try any of your sneaky tricks. You ain’t no friend of the wife or I’d know you. And we got a vacuum cleaner that’d suck the hide off a bear, so go away.† Effrom started to close the door. â€Å"No, please, Mr. Elliot. I really need to speak to your wife.† â€Å"She ain’t home.† â€Å"When will she be home?† â€Å"She’s coming home tomorrow. But I’m warning you, son, she’s even tougher than I am on flimflam men. Mean as a snake. You’d be best to just pack up your carpetbag and go look for honest work.† â€Å"You were a World War One veteran, weren’t you?† â€Å"I was. What of it?† â€Å"Thank you, Mr. Elliot. I’ll be back tomorrow.† â€Å"Don’t bother.† â€Å"Thank you, Mr. Elliot.† Effrom slammed the door. His angina wrenched his chest like a scaly talon. He tried to breathe deeply while he fingered a nitroglycerin pill from his shirt pocket. He popped it into his mouth, and it dissolved on his tongue immediately. In a few seconds the pain in his chest subsided. Maybe he would skip lunch today, go right to his nap. Why the wife kept sending in those cards about insurance was beyond him. Didn’t she know that â€Å"no salesman will call† was one of the three great lies? He resolved again to give her hell when she got home. When Travis got back into the car, he tried to hide his excitement from the demon. He fought the urge to shout â€Å"Eureka!† to pound on the steering wheel, to sing hallelujah at the top of his lungs. It might finally be coming to an end. He wouldn’t let himself think about it. It was only a long shot, but he felt closer than he ever had to being free of the demon. â€Å"So, how’s your old friend?† Catch said sarcastically. They had played this scene literally thousands of times. Travis tried to assume the same attitude he always had when faced with those failures. â€Å"He’s fine,† Travis said. â€Å"He asked about you.† He started the car and pulled away from the curb slowly. The old Chevy’s engine sputtered and tried to die, then caught. â€Å"He did?† â€Å"Yeah, he couldn’t understand why your mother didn’t eat her young.† â€Å"I didn’t have a mother.† â€Å"Do you think she’d claim you?† Catch grinned. â€Å"Your mother wet herself before I finished her.† The anger came sliding back over the years. Travis shut off the engine. â€Å"Get out and push,† he said. Then he waited. Sometimes the demon would do exactly what he said, and other times Catch laughed at him. Travis had never been able to figure out the inconsistency. â€Å"No,† Catch said. â€Å"Do it.† The demon opened the car door. â€Å"Lovely girl you’re going out with tonight, Travis.† â€Å"Don’t even think about it.† The demon licked his chops. â€Å"Think what?† â€Å"Get out.† Catch got out. Travis left the Chevy in drive. When the car started moving, Travis could hear the demon’s clawed feet cutting furrows in the asphalt. Just one more day. Maybe. He tried to think of the girl, Jenny, and it occurred to him that he was the only man he had ever heard of who had waited until he was in his nineties before going on his first date. He didn’t have the slightest idea why he had asked her out. Something about her eyes. There was something there that reminded him of happiness, his own happiness. Travis smiled. How to cite Practical Demonkeeping Chapter 10-11, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Pagan or Christian free essay sample

The classic epic tale Beowulf is a masterpiece that stands out in the literature of the past. Many characters in the poem struggle to define their religion at the time because Christianity was recently introduced in their Anglo-Saxon communities. Among them all, the main character Beowulf showed the most indecisiveness. In his words and actions, Beowulf embodies both Christian and Anglo-Saxon ideals; however, they reveal him to be more of a Christian than a pagan. Through the eyes of many reading this poem, they would have guessed Beowulf to be more of a pagan; but, there are many more examples of Christianity than paganism. The basis of Anglo-Saxon paganism narrows down to two main ideals: fame and fate. Many natives of non-Christian belief believe in fame as a way to earn their title in the world. This was shown in Beowulf’s attitude and speech only a few times. He showed some underlying beliefs in fame; such as, â€Å"I am old, now, / But I will fight again, seek fame still, / If the dragon hiding in his tower dares / To face me† (625-628), where Beowulf described wanting fame from every victory he accomplished. We will write a custom essay sample on Pagan or Christian? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Although this occurred, Beowulf spoke of God more frequently than a force of fame. Another ideal Beowulf spoke about was the belief in fate. Fate was what Anglo-Saxons believed was the plan for their life, instead of believing in God’s plan for them. Beowulf does mention fate when he describes the reason why he fights enemies, â€Å"Fate saves / The living when they drive away death by themselves† (305-306 pkt). Both of these ideas refer to the background that Beowulf grew up in, a non-Christian environment. They do not, however, meet the degree of which Christianity occurs in this novel. Even with Beowulf’s pagan background, his actions of Christianity overtake his demeanor and attitude. The Christianity of Beowulf is first exhibited with his voyage to the Danes kingdom. He is called there because of the terrible monster that is stalking and killing the Danes’ people. Since Christians are usually characterized as people who help those in need, Beowulf displays Christianity when he goes to help others by killing Grendel. Even though it may seem like he is pursuing this monster for fame, Beowulf wants nothing more than to save these innocent people from Grendel and stop the murders, adding on to his Christian standing. When Beowulf first began acquiring his victories, he seemed to have a boastful attitude. Although, as he grew wiser that vanity turned into a humble approach. Humbleness, a highly Christian characteristic, was seen when Beowulf did not attempt to brag about his victory of slaying Grendel’s mother. He even credits the victory to God by stating, â€Å"The fight would have ended straightaway if God had not guarded me†. This explains how Beowulf turns toward more Christian ideals throughout the book and away from the old paganism. However, his words truly speak louder than his actions when it comes to showing his Christian identity. While his actions may see the degree of Christianity on a characteristic level, Beowulf’s words display just how frequently God is mentioned in his everyday life. Beowulf refers to God in many aspects throughout the novel. One of the first and most important references occurs when he talks about his upcoming fight with Grendel. Beowulf talks about the lack of fear he possesses for Grendel while speaking with Hrothgar. He applies this fearlessness to his belief that God will determine what will happen: â€Å"my hands / Alone shall fight for me, struggle for life / Against the monster. God must decide who will be given to death’s cold grip† (267-270). Even stating that he needs no weapon, Beowulf is convinced that God has given him his gift of strength and will help him win the battle. This assumption is largely due to the Christian influence being brought upon him. Another prominent Christian reference is Beowulf’s death scene. As he is taking his last few breaths, he takes time out to pray to the Lord. A normal thing for many religious people to do, Beowulf looks back on his life and thanks God for all the goodness he has received. He even accredits Him for all the wealth he has acquired: â€Å"For this, this gold, these jewels. I thank / Our Father in Heaven. Ruler of the Earth / For all of this. that His grace has given me,† (816-818). In this final phrase of his life, Beowulf reiterates the basis of Christian life; the Lord is all the goodness in the world around us. In Beowulf, the novel, the ideals of Christianity and the pagan beliefs of the Anglo-Saxon decedents combine together and both are seen in each character. Beowulf, the main personality in the poem, shares this combination but has a distinct lean towards the Christian side. Even with the presence of fate and fame reflected in Beowulf, the frequency of paganism in his life cannot compare to that of Christianity. His actions show how he utilizes the classic Christian qualities and his words tell the reader how prominent God is in his life. Paganism may run deep in the Anglo-Saxon roots, but Christianity has made an everlasting impression on them.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Diet and Brain Development essays

Diet and Brain Development essays The relationship between diet and brain development are key to the evolution of hominids. Larger brains mean a greater capacity for thought. The ability to think and work out problems led to the development of tools and of language that distinguish hominids from primates and other organisms. With language, individuals are able to communicate with one another and work cooperatively in a way that gives them an advantage over solitary organisms. The development of a community and a society results in a complex culture with rituals for burial and forms of expression like art that help to distinguish the individual in a group. Larger brains and a greater capacity for thought also mean a prolonged period of brain development during which skills must be passed from more knowledgeable individuals to those still developing. This period, known as childhood, is one during which individuals are not capable of caring sole for themselves and it is the role of fully developed individuals to instill wisdom upon these young individuals while protecting them and providing the necessary elements that are key to their survival. The development of larger brains extended this period of childhood and makes hominid childhood one of the longest of any organisms. The development of larger brains go hand in hand with diet because it is nutrition that allows for the development of larger brains and larger brains that provide the capacity to find better forms of nutrition. The relationship between diet and brain development was first examined in Austalopithecenes. Australopithecenes can be divided into two subspecies known as robust and gracile. The gracile Australopithecenes were similar in body and brain size to the robust Austalopithecenes. They, however, had large grinding teeth, even larger than those of the robust. The most likely inhabited woodland areas and ate nuts and roots. While similar in brain size to the gracile, robust Australopithece...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Reading Tips to Improve Pronunciation for ESL Students

Reading Tips to Improve Pronunciation for ESL Students If youre working on pronunciation, these tips can help you use reading as a way to practice outside of class, either by yourself or with a couple of friends. Top Tips Choose a paragraph and read aloud.Choose a paragraph and mark each sentence with a sound script (helpful pronunciation markup). This will help you read more naturally, and thus pronounce correctly.Choose a few sentences from your reading material and highlight content words. Read these sentences focusing on accenting these content words while quickly speaking over the structure words.Once you become comfortable reading a single paragraph aloud, read an entire page by reading a paragraph aloud and then reading one silently.Choose some nursery rhymes to practice. They will help you with pronunciation through rhythm.Read a short story or a few paragraphs to a friend who is also studying English. Compare the differences and discuss what might be the reasons for the differences.Choose a paragraph, short article, or newspaper story with new vocabulary. Use the Babylon dictionary or another online pronunciation resource to help you learn the correct pronunciation of these words.Read a play with some friends. Each friend takes a different part. Start with short scenes. Once you are comfortable, read longer pieces together.

Monday, February 17, 2020

McHam_Donatello's David & Judith_x Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

McHam_Donatello's David & Judith_x - Assignment Example the controversial message that the family’s role in Florence was the same as that of respected Old Testament autocrat slayers and saviors of the people that emblematically inverted the increasing accusations that the Medici had developed tyranny that took all the power from the republican institutions in the city (McHam 32). The sculptures were mainly used as focal points of the courtyard and the garden that were linked. David was raised on a high base at the middle of the courtyard and could be seen when the palace’s main entrance was open. The exact location of the Judith and Holofernes in the plot is not known as the orchard was immediately behind the quad, it may have been noticeable from the quad if it was located on the bloc between the orchard and the quad (McHam 32). The placement of the sculptures reveals that they could easily be viewed by the desired audience since the courtyard could be accessed by palace visitors and the garden could be accessed by an invited group. 2) What evidence does McHam provide that suggests Donatello’s earlier marble version of David was interpreted in political terms? How would the placement of the artist’s later version of David been understood? (p. 34) The inscriptions in the manuscripts which describe the Palazzo della Signoria validate the speculation that had earlier been unproven that they might have been added to the sculpture before 1416 before Danatello recut the figure to emphasize a political role for David as being the defender of Florence (McHam 34). This was done by baring his one of his legs and removing the scroll that had previously used to identify David as being a prophet. The placement of the bronze version of David in the courtyard can be understood as a self-conscious allusion to the previous marble analogue and the inscription it was associated with. It was also a sign that the Medici were closely associated to the regime and supported their principles. 3) According to the author, what was